كوكب نبتون و بلوتو والاصطدام الممنوع والمحال

علاقة كوكب نبتون مع كوكب بلوتو

  • يملك كوكب نبتون و بلوتو ديناميكية مدارية بينهما مثيرة جدا للاهتمام
  • كوكب نبتون لديه مدار دائري تقريباً
  • غير ان مدار بلوتو مائل بشدة وتختلف مسافة بعده عن الشمس بشكل هائل على طول مسار مداره
  • وبسبب هذا يمكن لبلوتو فعليا ان يكون أقرب إلى الشمس من نبتون.
  • ويقضي بلوتو حوالي 20 سنه من فترته المداريه البالغة 248 سنة في مدار نبتون.
  • وعلى الرغم من أن مدار بلوتو يظهر أنه يعترض ويعبر نبتون عند النظر إليه من الاعلى مباشرة
  • الا ان المداران متحاذيان بحيث لا يمكن أن يصطدمان أو حتى يقتربان من بعضهما البعض !
  • فعندما يكون بلوتو أقرب إلى الشمس يكون أقرب إلى مدار نبتون كما ينظر اليه من أعلاه،
  • ولكنه أيضاً بنفس الوقت يعتبر بالنقطة الأبعد فوق مسار نبتون
  • فمدار بلوتو يمر فوق نبتون على بعد حوالي 8 وحدة فلكية مما يمنع الاصطدام.
  • الوحدة الفلكية الواحده = مقدار بعد الارض عن الشمس
  • اي انه يمر فوق مسار نبتون على بعد 8 اضعاف بعد الارض عن الشمس.

ولكن هذا وحده لا يكفي لحماية بلوتو…

  • فالاضطرابات الناجمة عن الكواكب (وخاصة نبتون) يمكن أن تغير مدار بلوتو على مدى ملايين السنين ليمكن حدوث تصادم.
  • ولكن كوكب بلوتو محمي أيضا بالرنين المداري مع نبتون ومقداره  (2: 3) :
  • وهذا يعني انه في كل دورتين مداريتين يقوم بها بلوتو حول الشمس،
  • يقوم نبتون بثلاثة دورات مدارية حول الشمس
  • وهذه الدورة والنمط المداري بين بلوتو ونبتون يستمر لحوالي 495 سنة!

فهذا النمط المداري بين كوكب نبتون وبلوتو يسير كالتالي:

  • في كل دورة تبلغ 495 سنه، و أول مره يكون بلوتو بالقرب من نقطة الحضيض (اقرب نقطة للشمس)
  • يكون نبتون على بعد زاوية 50 درجة وراء بلوتو.
  • وبحلول نقطة الحضيض الثانية لبلوتو، سيكون نبتون قد أكمل دورة ونصف دورة مداريه خاصة به،
  • وهكذا سيكون على ما يقرب من 130 درجة أمام بلوتو.
  • ومقدار الحد الأدنى من التباعد بين كوكب نبتون و بلوتو يبلغ أكثر من 17 وحدة فلكية،(17 ضعف بعد الارض عن الشمس)
  • وهو أكبر من الحد الأدنى لتباعد بلوتو عن أورانوس ( البالغ 11 وحدة فلكية) (11 ضعف بعد الارض عن الشمس)
  • والحد الأدنى للتباعد بين كوكب نبتون و بلوتو يحدث بالفعل عند وقت الأوج لبلوتو (ابعد نقطة عن الشمس)
  • والرنين المداري (2: 3) بين الكوكبان مستقر للغاية، ومحفوظ على مدى ملايين السنين
  • وهذا يمنع مداراتهما من التغيير بالنسبة لبعضها البعض،
  • وبالتالي فإن الكوكبان لا يمكن أن يمرا بالقرب من بعضها البعض.
  • حتى لو لم يكن مدار بلوتو مائل، فإن الكوكبان لا يمكن أن يصطدما أبدا !

المراجع :

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